Guest Speaker PowerPoint

Special Ed Presentation

Special Education – April 8, 2014 Concordia University

PL 94-142

Passed in 1975-originally named Education of all Handicapped Children Act

Now called IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)

Under IDEA, schools must offer FAPE (Free and Appropriate Education) to all children with disabilities in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

13 Disabilities Under IDEA

*Other Health Impaired (OHI)

*Speech/Language Impairment (SLI)

*Developmental Delay (DD

*Emotional and Behavior Disorder (EBD)

*Specific Learning Disability (SLD)


*Visual Impairment (VI) *Hearing Impaired (HI) *Deaf-Blind

*Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) *Mental Handicap (MH) *Multiple Handicaps (MH)

*Orthopedic Impairment (OI)

  • A different teacher
  • A different set of expectations
  • Changing expectations
  • Noise
  •  Anxiety of something different
  •  Different activitypossibly not preferred

Lack of engagement

Rigid responses from teachers

Lack of relationship with a teacher

Little or no motivation to go to or stay in class

Punitive responses to behavior


Implications for Inclusion

All children have the right to come to specials and should be viewed as learners

All students, regardless of disability, could potentially be in your class

Ethical and legal requirements to make appropriate accommodations for students with disabilities

Fair vs.Equal

Accommodations for a variety of disabilities

What can you expect?

A diverse group of students
Think about cultural profiency

A variety of behaviors

The need to individualize some activities to make some student successful

ADHD, Autism, Behavior Disorders, Depression, Anxiety (and many more)-prevalent in schools across ages

De-escalation: a way to calm kids down and not make them more upset

Humor, distraction, time, choices, breaks, physical break, drink,  errand, change the context

What can you do?

Build positive relationships with students

Create opportunities for ALL students to be engaged

Be preventative when thinking about potential behavior problems

Set explicit, positive expectations (PBIS)

Hold all kids accountable to your set expectations

Requires established trust and respect

Reinforce appropriate behavior (avoid punishment)

Building Positive Relationships

Effective strategy for all students

Good relationships make positive class climate

Kids put forth more effort when there is a relationship

Allow kids to share their experiences

Attempt to understand what makes each student unique ! Work to develop connections with students

Have a positive attitude

Relationships (Cont.)

Be genuine/authentic with kids

Demonstrate care, compassion, empathy

Constructively correct/redirect students

Relationships provide safety and security for students

Treat students with respect (and you will then get respect)

Reduce/prevent frustrations/stress

! Benefits

Use inclusive teaching strategies and activities

Active learning


Teach to all modes of learning

Empower students to take control of their learning

Make content relevant

Have FUN


Increases attention and focus Decrease behavior problems Increased student learning

Preventative Strategies

Be Prepared

Use Positive Approaches

Anticipate Problem Behavior

Catch Problems Early

Correct Problem Behavior Appropriately (See Handout)

Effective Interventions from the Adult and Adult Behaviors that Can Escalate a Crisis

PBIS – Positive Behavior Intervention Support

Research based practice for increasing positive behavior

School wide program

Elements can easily be implemented in a classroom Preventative vs. Reactive

Teach and reinforce appropriate behaviors

Bad Social Skills Are Not An Opportunity To Punish But An Opportunity To Teach (Maag 2012)


Be reasonable

Expectations – Keep them short, explicit and positive

“Raise hand to talk” rather than “Don’t blurt out”

Reward appropriate behavior and those students following the expectations

Must teach and reinforce

Classroom Routines


If you want them to do it, teach it!

Higher structure=higher success

Front end work pays off all year!

Continue to review, re-teach, and reinforce all year

Use visuals

4:1 Positive/ Negative Ratio and Behavior

Specific Praise

“Good job” vs. “Sally, I like how you are sitting quietly.”

Reinforcement Ideas

Point systems

Sticker charts

Chart moves (connect the dots)

Games (ex. Bingo)

Items in a jar/container




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